Latest News

When WASH practitioners understand the patterns and causes of slippage, they can devise innovative strategies to avoid it.

The CoP learning agenda for 2017 will commence with discussions around Sustainability from April 10th to 28th.

Lessons from the GSF-supported Uganda programme for implementing CLTS at scale through a decentralized government system.

The Global Sanitation Fund has identified a number of slippage patterns, linked to factors that communities have significant, little or no control over.

WSSCC explores community learning trajectories within the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) process, and how they relate to slippage.

In Agelilyec, community members are supporting disadvantaged groups as part of a larger effort to keep their village open defecation free.

In the second of a seven-part series for WASH practitioners, we explore the nuances of slippage and its impact on communities.

WSSCC is working to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6.2, to provide sanitation and hygiene for all, and does this in a number of ways.

In Cambodia, a Global Sanitation Fund (GSF)-supported programme is using real-time and action learning techniques to increase its impact.

Gender equality, serving the most vulnerable, and addressing the particular needs of women and girls are among the core principles of the GSF.

Participants shared best practices, common challenges, and promising innovations to end open defecation by 2025.

Like India, a disproportionate number of Nigerians – over 110 million – have little or no access to improved sanitation.

Resources

download

Local governance and sanitation: Eight lessons from Uganda

Global Sanitation Fund
Many non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations, as well as bilateral and multilateral donors, recognize the importance of closely working with governments in sanitation and hygiene programmes. Collective behaviour change approaches, such as Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), are also increasingly being embraced by governments as an alternative to traditional subsidy and enforcement-based approaches. This ‘GSF in focus’ case study presents eight lessons learned from the GSF-supported Uganda Sanitation Fund (USF) in coordinating, planning, and implementing CLTS at scale through a decentralized government system. The USF is the largest programme of its kind in Uganda. The programme, which began in 2011, is currently implemented by 30 District Local Governments under the overall management of the Ministry of Health. By September 2016, the USF reported helping over three million people live in open defecation free (ODF) environments.De nombreuses organisations non gouvernementales et intergouvernementales, ainsi que des donateurs bilatéraux et multilatéraux, reconnaissent l’importance de travailler en étroite collaboration avec les gouvernements dans le cadre des programmes d’assainissement et d’hygiène. Des approches collectives en matière de changement de comportement, telles que l’ATPC, sont de plus en plus adoptées par les gouvernements comme une alternative aux démarches traditionnelles axées sur les subventions et la répression. Cette étude de cas intitulée « Gros plan sur le GSF » présente huit enseignements tirés du programme du Fonds ougandais pour l’assainissement (USF) soutenu par le Fonds mondial pour l’assainissement (GSF) dans le cadre de la coordination, de la planification et de la mise en oeuvre de l’ATPC à grande échelle1 par l’intermédiaire d’un système administratif décentralisé. L’USF est le programme le plus important de ce genre en Ouganda. Débuté en 2011, il est actuellement mis en oeuvre par 30 gouvernements locaux de district2 sous la supervision du ministère de la Santé. En septembre 2016, l’USF a indiqué avoir aidé plus de trois millions de personnes à vivre dans un environnement exempt de défécation à l’air libre.
download

Gender and Community-Led Total Sanitation – CLTS engagement, outc...

Global Sanitation Fund
In order to better understand the link between gender dynamics and the impact of its Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) interventions, the GSF supported a study in a small number of communities in Madagascar in 2015. These communities are in the area covered by the GSF-supported programme in Madagascar, known locally as ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ (FAA). This ‘GSF in focus’ case study highlights and reflects on the study.Cette étude examine le lien entre la dynamique du genre et l’initiative d’assainissement total piloté par la communauté (ATPC) dans un petit nombre de communautés malgaches.
download

A gender case study of the experience and outcomes of Fonds D’App...

Global Sanitation Fund
This study explores the role that gender plays in shaping the experience and outcomes of the Fonds D’Appui pour l’assainissement (FAA) Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) interventions in Madagascar. Through a qualitative study in four villages in the Itasy region, this study finds that there is a difference in the way women and men actively engage in the CLTS process. Despite this, it finds that gender does not prevent people from realizing the benefits of sanitation and indeed some empowerment outcomes including increased respect, new roles for women and improved voice in the community around sanitation. However, the ability to contribute to decision-making and change gender stereotypes around roles and responsibilities, such as for cleaning and maintaining the toilet, raises questions for women and men’s long-term sanitation facilities and behaviours.
download

Sanitation and Hygiene Behaviour Change at Scale: Understanding S...

Global Sanitation Fund
As sanitation and hygiene programmes mature, the challenge shifts from bringing communities to ODF status to sustaining this status. In this context, many programmes are confronted with the issue of slippage. This concept refers to a return to previous unhygienic behaviours, or the inability of some or all community members to continue to meet all ODF criteria. This paper explores how to discern slippage nuances and patterns, strategies to address, pre-empt and mitigate it as well as alternative monitoring systems that capture the complexity of slippage more fully. The analysis and reflections are based on direct field experience, primarily from the GSF-supported programme in Madagascar. Moreover, the underpinning principle of the paper is that slippage is an expected aspect of behaviour change-oriented sanitation and hygiene interventions, especially those at scale, and not a sign of failure thereof.Modifier les comportements d’hygiène et d’assainissement à grande échelle – Comprendre la régression : Ce document de réflexion examine comment distinguer les nuances et les types de régression ; il étudie les stratégies qui visent à y répondre, à les prévenir et à les réduire ainsi que d’autres systèmes de suivi permettant de mieux appréhender la complexité de la régression. Les analyses et les réflexions reposent sur une expérience directe du terrain, provenant essentiellement du programme soutenu par le GSF à Madagascar. De plus, ce document est sous-tendu par un principe fondamental, à savoir que la régression est un aspect attendu des interventions en hygiène et assainissement qui sont axées sur la modification des comportements, surtout celles qui sont conduites à grande échelle, et qu’il ne s’agit pas d’un signe de l’échec de ces dernières.
download

Sustainable Sanitation For All – Case studies by Elizabeth Wamera...

Collaboration
Great strides have been made in improving sanitation in many developing countries. Yet, 2.4 billion people worldwide still lack access to adequate sanitation facilities and the poorest and most vulnerable members of society are often not reached and their specific needs are not met. Moreover, sustainability is currently one of the key challenges in CLTS and wider WASH practice, subsuming issues such as behaviour change, equity and inclusion, physical sustainability and sanitation marketing, monitoring and verification, engagement of governments, NGOs and donors, particularly after open defecation free (ODF) status is reached, and more. There have been several useful studies on sustainability that have highlighted some of these different aspects as well as the complexities involved. This book develops these key themes by exploring current experience, practices, challenges, innovations and insights, as well as identifying a future research agenda and gaps in current knowledge.WSSCC’s Elizabeth Wamera, Civil Society and National Engagement Officer’s chapter on post-ODF management process by the community is available for download from the book “Sustainable Sanitation for all: Experiences, challenges and innovations”. The chapter Who is managing the post-ODF process in the community? A case study of Nambale sub-county in Western Kenya, is based on the success of Nambale sub-county, which was declared ODF in 2012, and looks at the role of Community Health Workers (CHWs), discussing challenges that could be threatening ODF achievement and sustainability. As post-ODF follow-up is central to sustaining open defecation free (ODF) status, and needs to be integrated into CLTS programming from the outset, the chapter explores the responsibilities of carrying out these activities, and how they might be motivated and financed. The CLTS Knowledge Hub's newly launched book describes the landscape of the sustainability of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and sanitation with references to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and through examples from Africa and Asia. Featured in the book are a range of experiences and innovations from institutions and actors within the WASH sector attempting to make recommendations and practical suggestions for policy and practice for practitioners, funders, policymakers and governments.Sustainable Development Goal Target 6.2 aims, by 2030, to achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation (OD), paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. If we are serious about leaving no one behind, we will need to put human beings first, and infrastructure designed to serve them second. Many individuals and groups cannot use sanitation and hygiene facilities due to physical or societal restrictions placed on them by their gender, disability, age, caste, religion, gender, or poverty. Non-discrimination should be embedded into policy and practice, so that people’s realities, needs, and demands are clearly articulated and matched with budgets, adapted public facilities on the ground, more equitable sharing of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) burdens, and systematic, meaningful participation in decision-making and monitoring. This chapter summarizes the testimonies and aspirations of individuals across a number of Asian countries who were never asked what they need and who are excluded from services. They remind us that in order to leave no one behind we will need to listen to them, involve them fully at all key stages, and forge true partnerships to achieve shared goals.
download

Formative Research to Develop Appropriate Participatory Approache...

Collaboration
Most sanitation promotion approaches are only partially successful in providing short term increases in sanitation coverage and usage. BCC messages designed as marketing interventions often fail to address deeper underlying causes of resistance behind people’s reluctance to adopt improved and safe sanitation and hygiene. This study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perceptions, barriers, and motivators for improved sanitation behavior in rural India. Rural communities are not homogenous; they are also very divergent across the mountains, plains, deserts and coastal areas of India with mixed caste, tribal and Dalit composition. The study investigates how different disaggregated sets of people respond to the same questions on barriers to sanitation – women, men, adolescent girls and boys, children, old and infirm, tribal and non-tribal communities, village level functionaries, etc. The study was conducted in Gujarat, Telangana, and Jharkhand. An intensive field research was undertaken in nine villages between July and December 2015.
download

Global Sanitation Fund Progress Report 2015

Global Sanitation Fund
The 2015 GSF Progress Report provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of the Fund’s activities and performance in 2015. The latest information on the GSF’s structure and concepts at the date of publication of this report is also provided, as they relate to its work in 2015. Through regular reporting, WSSCC aims to provide a clear impression of the GSF’s current and planned impact. WSSCC encourages support for the GSF and welcomes critical analysis of the Fund's key results and activities. Key sections in the report include: a message from the GSF Programme Director; highlights and achievements; how the Fund works; highlights from all 13 GSF-supported country programmes; and feature stories and testimonials from the people and partners central to the Fund. 2015 was a year of considerable progress, learning and innovation for country programmes, and the Fund as a whole. Since the GSF was established, over $112 million has been committed for 13 country programmes. These commitments, and the work of thousands of partners and champions, have enabled 10.87 million people to live in open defecation free environments; 6.62 million to gain access to improved toilets; and 15.69 million to gain access to handwashing facilities.Cette publication donne une vue d’ensemble globale des activités menées par le GSF en 2015 et analyse ses performances pour cette année. Elle comprend également les informations les plus récentes quant à la structure du GSF et aux concepts utiles à la date de la publication du présent rapport, puisque celles-ci se rapportent aux travaux du GSF en 2015. Par le biais de rapports réguliers, le WSSCC a pour but de dresser un tableau clair de l’impact actuel et prévu du GSF. Le WSSCC vous encourage à soutenir le GSF et vous invite à lui adresser toute analyse critique des résultats et activités. L’année 2015 a été marquée par des progrès considérables, de nombreux enseignements et de grandes innovations pour les programmes que soutient le GSF et pour le Fonds dans son ensemble. Depuis la création du GSF, plus de 112 millions de dollars ont été affectés à 13 programmes de pays. Ces engagements financiers et le travail de nos milliers de partenaires et de champions ont permis au GSF d’engranger des résultats probants. 10,87 millions de personnes peuvent vivre dans un environnement exempt de défécation à l’air libre. De plus, 6,62 millions de personnes ont accès à des toilettes améliorées et 15,69 millions de personnes ont accès à des installations pour se laver les mains.
download

Follow-up MANDONA: A field guide for accelerating and sustaining ...

Global Sanitation Fund
Follow-up MANDONA (FUM) is an action-oriented, collective approach for post-triggering follow-up visits, as part of Community-Led Total Sanitation. The FUM approach was pioneered by MIARINTSOA NGO – a sub-grantee of the GSF-supported ‘Fonds d’Appui pour l’Assainissement’ programme in Madagascar. FUM brings the entire community together for a self-analysis of their sanitation situation and helps them immediately create models that prevent the ingestion of faeces. The approach then harnesses the power of Natural Leaders to replicate these models across the community, which includes helping those that are least able, in order to advance to open defecation free status. By focusing on sustainable behaviour change, FUM is also a useful tool for addressing issues surrounding ‘slippage’, which relates to returning to previous unhygienic behaviours. Illustrated with photos, case studies, and tips, this handbook provides a practical, step-by-step guide for how CLTS practitioners around the world can implement FUM in their own contexts.Follow-up MANDONA - Un guide de terrain pour accélérer et soutenir le mouvement des communautés exemptes de défécation à l’air libre grâce à une approche d’Assainissement total piloté par la communauté (ATPC)